GUILLERMO MORÁN DIRECTOR GENERAL DE TUNACONS

“Es preciso fijar normas para una gestión sostenible de la pesca de atún”

Euskadi es un líder mundial en la pesca de atún pero las capturas se centran en el Pacífico. Allí, el ecuatoriano Guillermo Morán defiende una pesca sostenible

XABIER AJA OSKAR GONZÁLEZ – Lunes, 29 de Julio de 2019 – Actualizado a las 06:03h

Guillermo Morán

Guillermo Morán (Oskar González)

Guillermo Morán

DONOSTIA – El País Vasco ha acogido esta semana la reunión anual de la Comisión Interamericana del Atún Tropical (CIAT). En la misma, entre las delegaciones presentes, estaba Guillermo Morán, director gerente de la asociación empresarial de Ecuador, Tunacons, que representa casi al 40% de la flota ecuatoriana dedicada a la pesquería del atún. Morán, entre otros cargos, ha sido viceministro de Pesca de Ecuador y se encuentra defendiendo una pesca sostenible ante la amenaza de sobreexplotación que sufre la pesquería por la entrada de nuevos operadores que no se suman a los criterios de control que siguen los grandes grupos tradicionales.

¿Qué es Tunacons?

-Es una alianza de las compañías ecuatorianas Nirsa, Eurofish. Jadran, Servogrup, más la estadounidense Trimarine. Hay empresas que solo se dedican a la pesca y otras que también se encargan de procesar y comercializar el producto. Nosotros estamos aquí para promover el desarrollo de una estrategia integral de la gestión de los túnidos en las aguas del Pacífico Oriental.

¿Por qué este esfuerzo para defender la pesca sostenible de túnidos?

-Hay que tener en cuenta que para Ecuador la industria del atún es la principal actividad del sector pesquero-industrial del país. Incluimos desde la captura y procesamiento hasta la comercialización. Somos el segundo país exportador de atún del mundo tras Tailandia. La flota atunera con base en Ecuador es la más importante del Pacífico oriental. Estamos hablando de unas capturas de 270.000 toneladas anuales. Nos jugamos mucho si no conseguimos una pesca sostenible.

El sector conservacionista señala que con la irrupción de los barcos modernos y la entrada de flota de países ribereños, sobre todo asiáticos, las capturas se pueden disparar y arruinar esta pesquería como ya ha ocurrido históricamente con otras. ¿Cómo está la situación del atún tropical?

-Según los estudios científicos de que disponemos, a día de hoy no hay sobrepesca en las especies que capturamos. En concreto, el barrilete, así como el patudo y el aleta amarilla, tienen un stock suficiente pero estamos llegando al límite y queremos que la pesquería siga en el futuro con una gestión adecuada. Por ello queremos impulsar una política de gestión integral apropiada.

En el Pacífico Oriental se utiliza una tecnología para atraer a los atunes a determinadas zonas denominada de plantado. Consiste en situar objetos flotantes artificiales para atraer al atún, unos dispositivos de concentración de peces, en ingles FAD, no muy ecológicos porque buena parte son plásticos.

-Estamos trabajando desde la flota ecuatoriana, en colaboración con los científicos y la CIAT, para fabricar plantados con materiales biodegradables y no sintéticos. Su implantación a corto plazo permitiría reducir la contaminación marina. Además, estamos formando a las tripulaciones para reducir la pesca accidental -tortugas, delfines, tiburones etc-, ligada al atún.

La flota que pesca atún por cerco está, más o menos, controlada. ¿Qué pasa con la pesca con palangre?

-Estamos proponiendo a las autoridades nacionales la implementación de una política regional que permita que todas las flotas atuneras con palangre que operan en el mundo lleven a bordo observadores para evaluar los impactos de esta pesquería en los ecosistemas marinos.

¿La última palabra la tiene el consumidor que compra las latas de atún en el comercio?

-Sí. Pero para ello hace falta una mayor concienciación del consumidor y que se valore la pesca certificada que asegura que ha sido capturada de forma sostenible. Eso supondría pagar más por el atún lo que permitiría obtener el mismo rendimiento económico con menos capturas lo que aseguraría su sostenibilidad. Nosotros estamos trabajando para conseguir una certificación internacional del atún pescado de forma sostenible porque los consumidores requieren, cada vez más, que la pesca y la producción del atún se haga de forma sostenible y responsable. Esta certificación nos permitirá mejorar la posición en mercados como el europeo que representa el 50% de las exportaciones de túnidos de Ecuador (unas 135.000 toneladas de las 271.000 que exportan anualmente de atún enlatado y de lomos de atún).

¿Qué peso tiene el mercado español para el sector atunero?

-España es uno de los mayores consumidores de atún per cápita del mundo. Casi el 20% de las capturas de atún exportadas por Ecuador a Europa tienen como destino España. Además, para Ecuador, el caso concreto del País Vasco es muy importante. No podemos olvidar que aprendimos esta pesquería de la mano de capitanes de Bermeo. El País Vasco tiene astilleros especializados en la construcción de buques atuneros y empresas vascas como Isabel-Garavilla y Salica tienen una notable presencia en el país ecuatoriano.

Los estados asiáticos están entrando en la pesca industrial a gran escala pero en algunos casos sin controles sobre la sobrepesca. ¿Cómo ve la situación?

-Hay una realidad, Indonesia es el primer productor y Tailandia ya es el primer comercializador y exportador de atún. India está creando una flota pesquera. Vemos con preocupación que no se alcancen acuerdos para controlar la flota y las capturas. Hay que trabajar con los científicos para saber realmente los stocks y trabajar en la sostenibilidad. En el Pacífico oriental ya tenemos una veda de pesca de atún 72 días al año.

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